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Author Topic: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS  (Read 730680 times)

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Offline tangtastic

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44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« on: November 03, 2011, 11:22:33 PM »
This is Jamie's DIY Build (aka "TheDOdblG"), He composed what follows.  I have copied his work over to this forum with his permission.

A Little Bit of Background:

I have a 44 gallon pentagon corner tank that is virtually impossible to light in a way that maintains proper reef lighting while still looking aesthetically pleasing and remaining functional. When I purchased the tank and stand a few years back, it looked identical to this stock photo I found on the web, and has the following dimensions:
   

And came with this stock hood:


The hood is made from plastic and is a rather flimsy. As you can see from the photo above, in the middle of the hood there’s a widow made of clear acrylic. This is where you can put a 16” fluorescent light. The red arrow points at a cover that can be removed for placement of an additional 16” light. This hood really limits your lighting options, and obviously won’t do for a reef tank, so I replaced it with a glass canopy and added a 24” HAGEN Power GLO Dual T5 light (24 Watt, 122 Lux, 18,000K). The light fixture that came with the tank didn’t go to waste. It uses one CORALIFE Actinic Blue Fluorescent Bulb (15 Watt, 420nm peak). There’s also a moonlight that uses three small LEDs (1 Watt total at full intensity):




While much better than what could be accomplished with the stock hood, this setup is still far from ideal. Not too many corals would even consider stepping foot in this tank. The photos above (taken over two years ago) show the different lighting this arrangement provided. The lights were on timers. The Actinic light came on first, then 2 hrs later the T5’s kicked in. The Moonlights were on an automatic 29.5 day lunar cycle. The eventual brightening and fading of the Moonlight (and its shimmer effect) is what enticed me to do an LED project. Even though the LEDs only totaled 1 Watt at best, they were certainly the most pleasing to look at.

So after much daydreaming and researching on the web, I came up with an idea to create a multipurpose aquarium hood. The rest of this post will be devoted to its development as I continue to improve it. But first I should mention that I read a very detailed and useful thread titled 96 LED Build by Ned Simpson (aka Surff), and decided I should borrow his “standard legal disclaimer” so I too don't get my ass sued off. After all I, like Ned, live in the United States.

As with any project that uses items that cut, burn, chop, fall, rotate, flog, zap, blind, etc., caution is most important. Please be advised that I take absolutely no responsibility for your actions regarding your use of any material provided here.

Articles and information provided are for educational purposes only. There is no substitution for official manufacturer's instructions and professional advice. Please contact the product manufacturer before modifying any devices or software. Please contact a licensed professional before attempting anything physical or following any advice given here. Neither the author, Jamie Jardin, nor any other contributors are responsible whatsoever for any damage incurred by following any instructions or advice provided.

Although it would be difficult to do, if you follow these articles and it leads to an electrical short that burns your house down - it's not my problem. If your wife divorces you shortly after, not my problem. If you lose your job and end up on the street - not my problem. If your bank account is empty - not my problem. If your credit cards are maxed out, I may share your pain, but it’s still not my problem. If you follow through with this, any and all consequences are your own problem and I will not be held responsible in any way.

I hope you enjoy my build, and good luck with yours. Enjoy!
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:15:54 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #1 on: November 03, 2011, 11:23:24 PM »
STEP 1: Initial Design Ideas (What do You Want Your Hood to do?)

I minus well throw some chum into the water early on to lure you in: Here’s a quick sneak peak of what I’m currently constructing:
   


Just a light, right? Essentially yes, but actually so much more. I want this hood to not only light my tank, but do so at the proper levels and in a controlled way that mimics the way nature would do it. That is, have a sunrise and a sunset, and have a lunar cycle that changes in accordance with the current moon phase. This hood should also monitor and control the temperature of the heatsink(s) because I want those little guys to last at least a decade. It should also monitor and control the water temperature, and even control water currents (DIY Wavemaker). I also want this hood to feed my fish, and also to control the lighting in my sump/refugium. The hood should be easily upgradeable and expandable. Maybe in a later version it will even simulate cloud coverage & produce the occasional lightning storm (with increased wave action). And finally, while I’m not a big fan of the looks/material of the tank and stand, it’s what I have, and so the hood should match.

After coming up with these general ideas as to what I wanted my hood to do, I decided to devise a layout for the Heatsink and LEDs. I want to maintain ease of accessibility to the tank while maximizing the lighting’s footprint, so I designed a removable door to a small opening smack dab in the front. This little caveat imposed numerous design and assembly challenges that were…let’s just say they were really fun! After completing the heatsink, the next step was to construct the wooden portion of the hood and mount the heatsink to it (while determining where all the “guts” were going to go). Then I could do some of the acrylic work, and finally dig in to the electronics and programing. I should also mention that while working on this project, I simultaneously worked on a mini LED project for the sump (more chum anyone?):


My next post will detail the design and build of the heatsink, which will also cover LED choices and layout
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:26:04 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2011, 11:23:50 PM »
STEP 2: Heatsink Design & LED Layout

I wasn’t exactly sure how many LEDs I was going to need for this project (and still don’t know), so I decided to go a little (a lot?) overboard. If there are “too many” LEDs or it’s “too bright,” I can simply dim them with the LED controller and Power LED Shield V2’s I plan on implementing. An advantage to that is the LEDs will last longer since I won’t have to run them at full power. The obvious disadvantage is the initial cost. Even though I’m certain there are more than enough LEDs, there’s still room available for expansion if either I or the fish and corals desire more!

I was able to get a rough idea of how many 3 Watt LEDs I would need based off of Ned’s Approximation Equation:

     Number of LEDs = Tank’s Water Surface Area ÷ Desired Watts per in˛.

So, with my tank's dimensions, A = net width * net length = 443.5 in˛., where A is equal to surface area. Now, given a desired mixed coral environment, and a net depth of ~18 inches while utilizing ~60° optics, there is a need for 13-15 Watts per in˛. Finally, the number of LEDs can be determined:

     Number of LEDs = 443.5 in˛ ÷ 13 Watts per in˛ ≈ 34 LEDs.

I’m not convinced by this equation due to the fact that if I want more Watts per in˛, then I would need fewer LEDs! It seems obvious that an inversely proportional relationship in this situation is erroneous, not to mention issues with the units. At any rate, I do believe it is a fairly good approximation, so I will just go with it. I just wish I had access to a Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) meter to verify.

I mentioned earlier about overdoing it with the amount of LEDs, so I decided on a 20% increase in the amount determined above (I should also mention that the LED drivers I want to use was also a determining factor in the number of LEDs, as you eventually will find out in a later post). As you can see from the heatsink layout below, there’s plenty of room for expansion:


These are the LEDs I want installed on the heatsink:


Not only do I want the capability of dimming all the LEDs, I want to be able control each color individually so I can eventually come up with the color mixture that works best for my tank. This will pose some obstacles with everything else I want the controller to do, but we’ll see how to get around them later when I discuss the LED controller and Power LED Shield V2’s. And speaking of later, we'll also get to my sump's light, which has an additional 5 LEDs for the Chaeto to enjoy: 4 CREE XP-G Cool Whites + 1 CREE XP-G Neutral White. Now that the LED layout is determined, and I know what I want my heatsink to look like, I can begin building it.

UPDATE: I added two more Royal Blue LEDs on it's own channel for the moonlights (CH4 - Shield 2). This brings the total to 48 LEDS - 43 in the main hood, 5 in the sump.
 

My next post will detail working the aluminum heatsink.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:29:54 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2011, 11:24:23 PM »
STEP 3: Heatsink Preparation

I ended up purchasing two extruded aluminum heatsinks with the following dimensions:
     16” x 7.280” x 1.300”
     12” x 7.280” x 1.300”

And here’s a list of various tools and materials I used to prepare them (I’m not saying you need to use these particular things, I’m just saying this is what I ended up using):

Tools & Materials Utilized in Cutting Heatsink:
     Table Saw with Carbide Tipped Blade
     Saber Saw with Carbide Blade
     Hacksaw
     Metal Files
     Square (and a pencil works great for writing on the Heatsink)

Tools & Materials Utilized in Preparing Heatsink for LEDs:
     Drill Press
     Cutting Oil
     4-40 Tap & Drill Set
     Computer Generated Template
     Hand Held Orbital Sander
     Sandpaper for the Orbital Sander (I used various grits from 100 to 1000)
     Dish Soap
     Acetone

Tools & Materials Utilized in Joining Heatsink Together:
     Drill Press with extra-long HSS drill bits
     Metal Files
     Thermal Compound
     Various Washers, Nuts & Bolts
     Various wrenches
     Vice
     Hacksaw

So, after taking careful measurements, and rechecking them several times, I was ready to cut the smaller heatsink. The red arrow in the picture below is pointing at the cut needed for an opening in the front of the tank. To make the majority of that cut, I used a table saw, making sure to stop just short of the angle. This part required further cutting using a saber saw and a hacksaw. It also needed some filing down. You will also notice I cut out a small section of fins (blue arrow) to make room for the power supply. I did this using the table saw and finished it up with a file. You can also see that a small portion of the fins were removed from the other heatsink:


In the picture above, you can see down along the sides of the sink where I drilled several holes using a drill press and some cutting oil. Some of these holes are used to join the two heatsinks together using bolts (Actually, I had to cut the heads off some bolts using a vice and a hacksaw and just use the thread stock and some nuts and washers on both ends of the stock. It had to be done this way because the bolts I had didn’t fit in between the fins). Anyway, if you look closely through the fins, you can see that several rows of holes were drilled perpendicular to them (these are like little tunnels for the wires to run through). Making these holes required the use of an extra-long HSS drill bit. These next two pictures show the two heatsinks becoming one:
   

Here’s a close up of the holes drilled for the LEDs (also using a drill press). Spacing between groups of holes is approximately 2 inches (except in the center where spacing for a number of LEDs is around 1 inch. I ended up using the drill bit that came with the 4-40 tap to make the holes to which the yellow arrows are pointing. You will also notice an extra hole slightly larger than the other two (purple arrow). This extra hole is used to conceal the wiring. I printed off a template I made on my computer and taped it on the sink to make sure my holes were going to be uniform and aligned prior to any drilling. I also had to make sure that the holes fell between the fin gaps, and making a template helped ensure this.


So for 41 LEDs, that’s a lot of holes. But remember I said I wanted room for expansion, so I went ahead and drilled enough to accommodate up to 58 LEDs. NOT including the holes for the wiring & bolts etc., that’s 116 holes. What’s more is all these holes had to be tapped by hand!

So once the heatsinks were drilled and tapped and joined together (with a layer of thermal compound in between the sinks), I filed off any burrs and rough edges and worked my way up to 1000 grit with the orbital sander across all the flat surfaces. Finally, I washed it up real nice using dish soap, and after drying, borrowed my wife’s nail polish remover (100% Acetone) to give it a final cleaning before mounting the LEDs. For a good tutorial on how to do most of this, I again refer you to Ned’s 96 LED Build.

My next post will cover installing the LEDs on the heatsink.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:33:15 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #4 on: November 03, 2011, 11:25:42 PM »
STEP 4: LED Installation

There’s really not a whole lot to this step, but given how I wanted to run my wiring, it was extremely tedious to say the least. A few hours in, I really started to regret my decision…


Tools & Materials Utilized in LED Installation:
     LEDs mounted on Stars from STEP 2
     4-40 x 3/8 Nylon Round Head Screws
     4-40 x 3/8 Stainless Steel Round Head Screw
     Insulating Fiber Washers (4mm x 8mm x 0.8mm)
     Thermal Compound & Compound Spreader
     Flat Head & Phillips Head Screwdrivers
     22 AWG Wire (Various Colors)
     Wire Stripper
     Wire Cutter
     Variable Temperature Soldering Iron
     Rosin-Core Solder
     Flux
     Needle Nose Pliers
     Tweezers
     Soldering Assist Tool
     Cordless Hand Held Drill

So, with all the materials & tools gathered up, and a freshly prepared heatsink, I was ready to tack on those high powered LEDs. First thing I did was break out a copy of my layout from STEP 2. Doing one color of LED one LED at a time, I began by applying a dab of thermal compound to the back of a LED star, then placing the LED star in between the designated holes (the yellow & purple arrows from STEP 3). I then applied a little downward pressure on the LED with my finger, and while doing this, I pushed it around a bit in a circular motion. This helped to ensure the compound filled up any little gaps/scratches in the sink. Next, I put a washer on the screws and put the washer/screw assembly into the holes (yellow arrows from STEP 2) and screwed them in until they just started making contact with the LED star. I then tightened one screw a quarter turn or so, then the other, and continued alternating between the screws until the LED was firmly in place. I then grabbed the other LEDs and did the same process 40 more times, drank a beer, then took a nap.

When I woke from my nap, I grabbed my wiring blueprint, some white 22 gauge wire, and started in on the white LEDs. They are wired in series, with one long wire soldered to the first LED’s (+) side, and another shorter wire connected to the LED’s (–) side that also gets soldered on to the next LED’s (+). This process is repeated until the last LED in series, where another long wire connected to the its (-) side (this time black). Finally, this wire meets up with the first long white wire (these two wires will eventually get hooked up to terminals on the Power LED Shield). I then twisted these wires together using a cordless drill. I then did the same thing for each of the other LEDs, and then taped all the groups of wires together. Feeding the wires in and out and around all those holes and fins was a blast! (Not at all). Needle nose pliers, some tweezers, a soldering iron assist tool, steady hands, lots of patience, and cursing loudly all played key roles in completing this part.


It’s important to have a fairly decent soldering iron for this because the LED star, and the heatsink to which it is now connected, is going try its best to suck all the heat from your iron. I had mine set around 425 - 450 °C. Using flux here seemed vital. When one string was done, I moved on to the next. I tried matching up the colored LEDs to the same colored wire for ease of identification later.


I should also mention that it’s a good idea to thoroughly test your connections to make sure everything is hooked up properly. I did this using two AA batteries connected together in series and some test leads, testing them 2 LEDs at a time (the 1st and 2nd in series, then the 2nd and 3rd, the 3rd and 4th, and so on).

Next, I will show you how I constructed my hood from some scrap wood and how the heatsink is mounted in it.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:35:13 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #5 on: November 03, 2011, 11:27:02 PM »
STEP 5: From Wood to Hood

My aquarium and stand was by no means a bargain. I paid way too much for what I got, and the quality is very lacking, as you probably already surmised from the pictures in my first post (the stock hood should have given this away). And the stand is made out of some cheap pine wood. But working with what I have, I wanted to make the hood match the stand. This was going to work out well since my dad had a surplus of scrap pine wood planks just sitting in his garage collecting dust. He said if I wanted them, they were mine. And last I checked, free is generally better than having to pay.

Tools & Materials Utilized in Hood Construction:
     Pine Wood
     Table Saw
     Double Bevel Compound Miter Saw
     Saber Saw
     Hole Saws
     Table Belt Sander (Oscillating)
     Drill Press
     Hand Held Cordless Drill
     Various Drill Bits
     Counter Sink Drill Bit
     Wood Glue
     Wood Screws
     Screwdrivers
     Vice Grips
     Hammer
     Router
     Orbital Sander with Various Grits of Sandpaper (60 – 320)
     Wood Stain (Various Colors)
     Polyurethane
     Paint Brush
     Stainless Steel Screws
     Squares
     Tape Measure
     Quick-Grip Clamps
     Cardboard for template
     Protractor

Before I show you some pictures of the hood construction, I suppose I should show you the mounting brackets I made for the heatsink. They are made from 1/16” thick Aluminum Angle. I simply cut them to size using a Miter Saw (and filed off the burs) then bent them using a vice and hammer. I then drilled some holes in them to mount them to both the hood and the heatsink. They are connected to the heatsink using some small nuts, lock washers, flat washers, and bolts. The brackets are also adjustable, being able to slide back and forth:


Here’s a shot of initially lining up some pieces before gluing and screwing them into place. Before I did that, I had to make sure the heatsink was going to fit (It is connected to the hood using some washers and wood screws). You can see the assembly sitting around a cardboard template I made of the top of my aquarium (also notice some notches cut out of the template; that is for some of the aquarium plumbing):




And Here’s a shot of a cross brace that doubles as a support for the main lid to the heatsink and the lid to the tank. You might also notice I cut some holes out of the back for the plumbing, as well as completed some other miscellaneous woodwork (some extra pieces and some sanding, etc.)


And here’s a shot with the front lid in place. I must say, making all these compound angle cuts was no picnic:


It turned out, however, that not all the pine I acquired was the same age. Some of it had been around for over 30 years, and other pieces were cut within the past year or so. Coloration from one piece to the next was hardly uniform. Making them match was going to be a challenge. This required mixing various stains together and some trial and error. In the end, the match was fairly close (I didn’t want to make it look “too good,” because remember, I want it to match the stand). The main difference however is the stand has a satin finish; I decided to finish the hood in semi-gloss polyurethane because it offers better water resistance.


The next post will be quick, just covering some of the details of the hood not included in this post. I’m sure some of you might be wondering what that thing is that looks like a miniature toilet in the back of the hood. Don’t worry, I’ll get to that too.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:38:25 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #6 on: November 03, 2011, 11:28:15 PM »
STEP 6: Accessorizing the Hood

The hood needed plenty of more work if it was going to be functional. This included drilling and cutting various holes for input/output plugs and air vents, waterproofing it, and also making a cover for the main opening.

Tools & Materials Utilized in Hood Fixtures:
     Table Saw
     Miter Saw
     Drill Press
     Various Drill Bits
     Hole Saws
     Orbital Sander (and various grits of sandpaper)
     Aluminum Vents
     Self-Etching Primer
     Black Spray Paint
     Clear Coat
     Acrylic (Black & Clear)
     Heat Gun
     MAPP Welder
     Weld-On #4 and Weld-On #16
     Syringe
     Router
     Weather Stripping
     RCA Connectors
     5 Min Epoxy
     IEC320 C14 Inlet Male Power Plug
     120mm Fan Dust Guards w/ Screws
     Phillips Screwdriver
     Wood Chisels
     Metal Files

There are five of these vents located in strategic points along the hood. They are made out of aluminum. After sanding and cleaning, I sprayed them with a few light coats of a self-etching primer, followed by a few coats of a semi-glossy black spray paint, and finished them off with a clear coat. After cutting the holes (and using a router to make a lip), I glued them in place. I located them at the extremes of the heatsink so outside air will be drawn in across the fins toward the center of the heatsink and expelled out the top of the hood by two 120mm PWM fans.


There are also some breather holes I drilled that line up with vents that are in the power supply (which I will cover in more detail when I post about the electronics). These are not pictured.

But here’s a picture of the main lid for the hood. It’s made from black acrylic, and has two filter vents installed directly above the fans that sit on the heatsink. They double over as handles for the lid. Is it a coincidence that if you rotate the lid 180° that it mysteriously becomes superman’s logo? I’ll let you decide.




This next picture shows the AC power input plug with on/off switch. Also pictured is an input/output panel for controlling the sump light (and its 60mm PWM cooling fan) and for reading the sump light’s temperature. Moreover it outputs signals to a DIY wave maker that I will detail in a later post. This panel is constructed out of a piece of acrylic, some RCA connectors, and is held in place by 5 min. epoxy (This is the back corner which is against the wall, so I didn’t bother making it look that great, or even waste time in trying to hide screws). At the bottom of the hood you can see the cutout for the overflow pipe and return plumbing, etc.


So how about that toilet looking thing that’s in the back of the hood?


That is some acrylic I molded into a shape of a toilet that’s glued on to a piece of wood. It is a little funnel for an EHEIM automatic fish feeder. The translucent grey part on the end is a container full of food which rotates on a user defined schedule. When it rotates, the desired amount of food falls out, goes down the toilet, and flows out to sea.


Finally, this is what protects everything that’s in the hood from being exposed to the salt water. From the bottom view of the hood, you can see that there’s a double layer of weather-stripping affixed along the recessed inner edges. This provides a good seal for the splash guard that gets screwed in.
   



The splash guard is made from both clear and black acrylic. I made the larger cuts in the acrylic with a table saw, and the smaller ones using a miter saw. Various pieces were then shaped with a heat gun then “glued” together using Weld-On Acrylic Cement. I finished off the edges with a router, and polished them up with a MAPP welder. The screw holes were made using a countersink drill bit. This design not only protects the innards of the hood from the salt water, but also enables accessibility to the tank while providing room for the plumbing. You might even notice the little hole cut out for the fish feeder (I’m hoping that incorporating an automatic feeder doesn’t prove to be a design flaw).

So all I have left to discuss is the sump and sump light, the Wave Maker, and finally the electronics (along with my Arduino sketch). I’m going to save the electronics and programming for last, since I’m sure that’s from where most of the questions will come, and furthermore, I’m not completely finished with that part of the build…
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:43:04 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #7 on: November 03, 2011, 11:28:39 PM »
STEP 7: Refugium & Sump Light

This refugium build is to replace the one I made a few years back. The old one was made with really thin and cheap acrylic, so it started to warp and fall apart. I’m going to just gloss over this section. If anyone has any questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.

Tools & Materials Utilized in Refugium Construction:
     10 Gallon Glass Aquarium
     Acrylic (Clear & Black)
     Weld-On #4
     Syringe
     Aquarium Silicone
     Screen
     Table Saw
     Miter Saw
     Orbital Sander
     MAPP Welder
     Square
     Measuring Tape
     Masking Tape
     Clamps


These pictures were taken before I glued the dividers in place with aquarium grade silicone. They were being held roughly in place with some blue masking tape where they were eventually to be glued with the silicone. There are two boxes I made using the same methods as described in the previous step. The box on the right (in the tank) is where the water enters the fuge from the main tank. I made a little slot for a carbon filter pad that slides into place. I have to say, changing them is a snap (I just don’t like messing around with those pesky carbon socks). The box on the left is the last chamber, and you can see there’s an EHEIM Compact+ 2000 Water Pump in there for the water return.


I made the lid out of acrylic as well. There’s various holes cut out: The one in the upper right hand side is for the intake pipes, The square below that is where the protein skimmer sticks out, To its immediate left is a small lid to access the fuge, The small lid in the upper left is to add more water (someday I will make this automatic), And the notch in the middle left is for the return line. You can also see the mini LED sump light I made concurrently with the main LED build, as well as its stand. It makes it nice for left/right & front/back adjustments. Here’s another shot:


The fuge is currently up and running, but since the hood isn’t finished yet, I cannot power the sump light. Once that part gets finished, I’ll post some updated pictures with the live rock & sand & cheato, etc.

Here’s a quick sequence of pics showing how the mini sump light is constructed. It’s basically made from scrap parts (the part of the heatsink I cut out from the main hood's heatsink, a little bit of leftover acrylic, etc.). Again, I will not go into too much detail here, as it’s essentially a simplified version of the main hood.


I changed the wiring a little bit from what you see above by adding a Molex connector for the 60mm PC fan, as well as changed out the fan itself for a 60 mm PWM PC fan (so 1 additional wire was needed; I did not opt to use the other fan wire that's used to monitor its RPMs). The Red, Green, & Purple wires are for the temp sensor, the black and white are for the LEDs. The holes that are drilled along the sides are air intakes. This next shot should also clarify how I was able to cram everything into such a small casing.


I made sure to leave some clearance for lenses. I have a bunch of different angled lenses on hand, but as of yet I don’t know what’s going to work best.


And here it is again up on its pedestal:


So that about does it for the Refugium. I will post some updated pics as soon as I get this build completed. My next post will detail my DIY Wave Maker.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:45:12 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #8 on: November 03, 2011, 11:29:09 PM »
STEP 8: Wave Maker (Part I)

My Wave Maker design is fairly straightforward. I didn’t bother trying to implement a circuit to ramp up and down the powerhead motors. Instead, I took the “simple” route and decided to use two powerheads, and just alternately turn them on and off. Some of the DIYs I’ve seen (as well as the so called “professional” Wave Makers out there), seem to promote alternating the powerheads at a high frequency (search DIY Wave Maker in YouTube for several examples). The impression I get is that they are trying to accomplish some kind of resonant frequency to get the highest waves possible. In my opinion, this is in stark contrast in comparison to what nature usually does. Whenever you actually see a reef in the wild, ocean waves and currents rarely act like that. Rather, they tend to sway in one direction for a short while, and then eventually go the other way (and repeat). But this back and forth generally doesn’t occur for the same lengths of time, and eventually the back and forth become forth and back. What I’m referring to of course are the tidal currents (Flood & Ebb Tides & Slack Water). So it is my objective to produce these natural oscillating currents known as tidal streams (without the associated rise and fall in water depth). I plan on incorporating the coding from my Moon Phase into the Wave Maker Code to help predict these tides. It is my overall goal to replicate the conditions found in nature’s reefs on a small scale. I should mention however that if high frequency high amplitude waves are your thing, then my DIY Wave Maker with a few changes in the timing can easily accomplish this for you.

I borrowed these two images from Wikipedia to give you an idea of what the tidal schedule will resemble:

(To read more on this and for the reference, here’s an Article on Ocean Tides at Wikipedia)


Tools & Materials Utilized in Wave Maker Construction:
     Wire Cutters and strippers
     Screw driver
     Soldering Iron
     Multimeter
     Metal Single Gang Output Box
     3/8” Clamp Combination Connector (Wire Nut)
     15 Amp Outlet
     High-Voltage, High-Current Darlington Transistor Array, i.e. ULN2803A
     18-Pin DIP IC Socket (optional)
     Acrylic
     Solid State Relays (KYOTTO AC KB20C06A 280VAC 6A)
     Male 3 Prong Connector
     X2 Capacitors (0.22μF / 270VAC)
     RCA Cables (with Female Connectors)
     Heatshrink Tubing
     Heat Gun
     Zip Tie(s)
     Miscellaneous wire and solder
     5 minute epoxy
     Wire Spade Terminals
     Liquid Electrical Tape
     HYDOR Korialia Evolution Powerheads

When I originally thought about constructing a Wave Maker, I was hesitant because I really didn’t want to use Electromechanical SPDT or DPDT relays. The various hums, vibrations, and splashes from my tank and sump are loud enough, so I definitely wanted to avoid adding relay clicking and clacking to the symphony of aquarium noises. I was starting to lean toward making an overly complicated circuit, but then I found out about Solid State Relays (SSR). I wasn’t even aware of their existence until I stumbled across them while trying to find the right spec’d SPDT relay on one of the websites I use to order electronic parts. After I checked my powerheads’ spec sheet, I determined the current draw, and decided on a SRR rated at 6A (I like overkill). These relays are completely silent. (Here’s a link to the SRR datasheet).

Before I open the picture gallery, I must warn you that I am from the United States, and household wiring is not the same here as it is in the UK. In US household wiring, typically the green wire is ground, the white wire is return, and the black wire carries the power. Also, in the US the power supplied to households is 110-120V at 60Hz. If you’re from the UK however, all is not lost. The relays I’m using are rated up to 280VAC. You might want to check the datasheet on the ULN2803A (and use a different Darlington transistor if necessary – although I’m fairly certain this will work out fine), and you’ll of course have to use different outlets…

I think my pictures explain the wiring fairly well, so I won’t bother including a wiring diagram (after all, I didn’t use one). I suppose you can get away with excluding the ULN2803A altogether, but I included it because it is ideally suited for interfacing between low-level logic circuitry from the Arduino and multiple peripheral power loads such as motors and relays. Here’s a diagram of the chip for reference:


So enough with all the talking. The first thing I did (after testing the relays for functionality) was use 5 min epoxy to glue the relays to the back of the outlet. I also cut the tab that connects the “hot” leads (Brass colored screws circled in Green). Doing this separates power to the outlets so I can control each one individually. I then broke off and tossed out the tab indicated by the Red Arrow, as well as his three friends.


After letting the epoxy set for an hour or so, I glued on an 18-Pin DIP IC Socket (Purple Arrow) that is slightly elevated over the relays by wedging (and gluing) a small piece of acrylic in between them. I also bent the pins of the Socket ~90° outward. After letting the epoxy set overnight, I then soldered on each SSR a 0.22μF X2 Capacitor rated at 270VAC (Blue Arrows) across the output (3 and 4 on the SSR). Not only does this provide filtering, it is now in compliance with the EMC Directive. I then began to solder some of the other wires you see.


The DC stuff: The RED wire is soldered on to pin 10 of the DIP Socket and to the optocoupler leads on each of the SRR’s (Red circles). This will supply +5V to the ULN2803A, and also to the SSR’s. The BLUE wire is soldered to the other optocoupler lead on the RIGHT SRR and to any other pin on the RIGHT side of the DIP socket (pins 11-18). The same is done with the LEFT SSR and the PURPLE wire.

That’s pretty close to the post size limit, so I will have to continue this DIY Wave Maker build on the next post.

« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:48:50 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #9 on: November 03, 2011, 11:30:18 PM »
STEP 8: Wave Maker (Part II)

Next, I attached some colored wires to an RCA Cable, covered the connections in heatshrink tubing, and fed the assembly through a hole in the metal single gang outlet box with two female RCA connectors hanging out the back (Sorry I didn’t include a picture of this). I then used a zip tie to hold the cable firmly against the wall of the outlet box.

And for the rest of the DC stuff, I soldered the RED wire (from the RCA cable) that supplies the +5V to the rest of the RED wires (They are wired in parallel so you can solder it to any of the leads where you see RED wire). Next I soldered the GREEN wire to pin 9 of the DIP Socket. This is the Ground Wire. The PURPLE wire (from the RCA cable) is soldered to the pin directly across from where the other PURPLE wire is soldered. The BLUE wire (from the RCA cable) is also soldered across from the other BLUE wire. The PURPLE wire carries a signal from one of the Arduino's digital pins through the transistor and to the SRR on the left, telling the relay when to allow power to flow through the output. Using a different digital pin on the Arduino, the BLUE wire does the same thing to the other outlet.


The next thing I did was use some type NM-B household wiring for the AC connections. The Grey arrows in the picture below show the “hot” connections. After soldering on these wires, I cut the extra bit of leads off the SRR’s.


Next, I fed the cable from a three-pronged plug through a 3/8” wire nut that I attached to the outlet box (Yellow Arrow). After stripping the cable, I soldered the Power (BLACK) wire to one of the SSR’s output leads (Orange Arrow). These are the ones that are NOT directly connected to the “hot” leads of the outlet (Brass Screws).


I then attached some spade terminals to the Return (WHITE) and Ground (GREEN) wires of the cable, and screwed them to the corresponding leads on the outlet.


Finally, I tested all the connections using a multimeter. After passing the tests, I slathered on some Liquid Electrical Tape to the exposed electrical connections. After the Liquid Tape dried, I plugged the transistor into the DIP socket, then tucked everything in the outlet box all nice and neat, tightened the wire nut, screwed the outlet to the outlet box, and screwed on the faceplate. I forgot to take a picture of this immediately after the build, but here it is installed on the tank stand. You can see the two RCA inputs hanging out the back and to the right (Recall from an earlier post how I have RCA connectors in the back of the Hood. Yep, you guessed it. That’s where they will get plugged in).


To test this build, I plugged a lamp into one of the sockets and uploaded the infamous “Blink” Arduino Sketch to my UNO. I then hooked up the RCA connections to the UNO (BLUE & PURPLE wires to Digital Pins, RED wire to 5V, and GREEN wire to GND) and enjoyed an ice cold beer to my brand new strobe light. For good measure & for the sake of science, I then enjoyed another while the lamp was plugged into the other outlet (back to back raves). Epileptics Beware!

I know some of you might be concerned with quickly & repeatedly turning AC motors on and off. However, the powerheads I’m using are Hydor Koralia Evolution 750’s. They are compatible with Hydor’s Wave Maker (and are designed to be used with it), and that is exactly what those particular Wave Makers do – Alternately turns them on and off. The main differences being my Wave Maker is quieter, my Wave Maker incorporates a tidal schedule, and my Wave Maker cost approximately 80% less (cost of Arduino included!). And as a side note, this exact same design can be utilized to turn your other peripherals on/off (Chiller, Heater, Lights, etc). Just figure out how many devices you want to control then make that many outlets. Each ULN2803A Transistor can handle up to 8 separate signals!

So, I hope my DIY Wave Maker build wetted your palate for my upcoming post(s): The Electronics!
« Last Edit: November 23, 2014, 09:51:30 PM by TheDOdblG »
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Offline LiquidArts

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #10 on: November 04, 2011, 07:08:52 AM »
Very Nice Kev....think i'm gonna have to post pics of a current controller build for a client I have....lol
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Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #11 on: November 04, 2011, 08:08:09 AM »
Think we should start an arduino build thread, this one was a friend from overseas i helped and is his build

Kev

Got a feeling i will be able to order all the remaining parts next week for my build at last
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Offline ray

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #12 on: November 04, 2011, 09:21:29 AM »
that is the dogs nuts looks so neat and tidy  :)

Offline paul k

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #13 on: November 04, 2011, 11:50:31 AM »
Great build , would love to be able to do DIY like this . ( wishful thinking )

Offline tangtastic

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Re: 44 Gallon Pentagon Corner Tank LED Hood - DIY Build + EXTRAS
« Reply #14 on: November 04, 2011, 11:57:17 AM »
Led builds now are quite easy as some sellers sell complete kits such as this one

http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/6x3-W-LED-Constant-Current-Driver-Kit-DIY-item-/110726579034?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item19c7d1835a

Then to make them dim all you need is a pwm drive such as this one

http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/3w-LED-Driver-MBI6651-based-Luxeon-White-Green-Blue-/250924013491?pt=UK_BOI_Electrical_Components_Supplies_ET&hash=item3a6c3c97b3

that is the basics to any led build

Kev



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